As attorneys know, authorized programs in countries around the globe usually fall into one in every of two most important categories: common legislation techniques and civil law methods. For instance, most proceedings earlier than U.S. federal and state agencies are inquisitorial in nature, at least the initial levels (e.g., a patent examiner, a social safety hearing officer, and so on), even though the regulation to be utilized is developed by way of common regulation processes.
First, frequent law courts are usually not completely sure by precedent, but can (when extraordinarily good reason is proven) reinterpret and revise the law, without legislative intervention, to adapt to new developments in political, authorized and social philosophy Second, the common regulation evolves by means of a sequence of gradual steps , that gradually works out all the details, in order that over a decade or extra, the regulation can change considerably but with no sharp break, thereby lowering disruptive results.
Understanding why Leoni (and Hayek later) believes the frequent regulation to be extra sure and predictable-regardless of its unwritten characteristics-derives from recognizing that the frequent law is a conceptual system, versus legislation, which is a verbal system of commands.
Within the eighteenth century, the reforming aspirations of Enlightenment rulers aligned with jurists’ want to rationalize the regulation to provide comprehensive, systematic legal codes including Austria’s 1786 Code of Joseph II and Complete Civil Code of 1811, Prussia’s Complete Territorial Code of 1794, and France’s Civil Code (known as the Napoleonic Code) of 1804.
In contrast, in civil legislation jurisdictions, courts give the writings of regulation professors vital weight, partly as a result of civil law selections traditionally have been very brief, typically no more than a paragraph stating who wins and who loses.